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Rock Cycle and Mineral Resources

Lecture 10

The Earth Is a Dynamic Planet

´ Geology´ Study of dynamic processes taking place on the earth’s surface

and in its interior

´ Three major concentric zones of the earth´ Core (Inner and Outer)

´ Mantle, including the asthenosphere

´ Crust´ Continental crust

´ Oceanic crust: 71% of crust

What Are Rocks?

´ Mineral´ Naturally occurring chemical element or compound that exists

as a crystalline solid

´ Mineral resource´ Concentration that we can extract and process into raw

materials

´ Nonrenewable

´ Rock´ Solid combination of one or more minerals

Igneous Rocks

´ Igneous rocks´ Igneous—“fiery inception”

´ Magma—molten rock beneath Earth’s surface

´ Lava—molten rock when it flows onto Earth’s surface

Slow Cooling – bigger minerals with distinctcrystal structure

Fast cooling – very fine grained, not crystalline

Intrusive vs Extrusive Rocks

Examples of Intrusive Igneous Rocks

´ Diorite is a coarse-grained, intrusive igneous rock.

Granite is a coarse-grained, light colored, intrusive igneous rock.

Examples of Extrusive Igneous Rocks

Basalt is a fine-grained, dark-colored extrusive igneous rock.

Obsidian is a dark-colored volcanic glass that forms from the very rapid cooling of molten rock material. It cools so rapidly that crystals do not form.

Pumice is a light-colored vesicular igneous rock. It forms through very rapid solidification of a melt. The vesicular texture is a result of gas trapped in the melt at the time of solidification.

Oceanic and Continental Crust

´ Oceanic Crust made up of Basalt (extrusive igneous rock)

´ Continental Crust made up of Granite (intrusive igneous rock)

´ Basalt is denser than granite

Sedimentary Rocks Composed of cemented mineral

grains/rock fragments

´ Created by:´ Weathering: breaking rocks into smaller

pieces

´ Erosion: removing grains from parent rock

´ Transportation: dispersed by gravity, wind, water, and ice

´ Deposition: settling out of the transporting fluid

´ Lithification: transforming into solid rock

Sedimentary Rocks

 Geologists define four classes of sedimentary rock. ´ Clastic: rock fragments (clasts) cemented together

´ Biochemical: cemented shells of organisms

´ Organic: carbon-rich remains of plants or other organisms

´ Chemical: minerals that crystallize from water

ChemicalClastic OrganicBiochemical

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks

 Clast size/grain size Diameter of

fragments/grains Range from very coarse to

very fine Boulder, cobble, pebble,

sand, silt, and clay´ Gravel: coarse-grained sediment

(cobble, pebble).´ Mud: fine-grained (silt and clay)´ As transport distance increases,

grain size decreases.

Examples of Clastic Sedimentary Rocks

Conglomerate – clasts are gravel sized or larger.

Sandstone – clasts are sand grain sized.

Shale-clasts are the size of clay grains.

Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks

 Biochemical limestone´ Principle compound is CaCO3

´ Forms in warm, tropical, shallow, clear, O2-rich, marine water

´ Composed of shell debris from diverse community (corals, clams, oysters, snails, brachiopods, plankton, forams, cocolithophores)

Organic Sedimentary Rocks

 Made of organic carbon—the soft tissues of living things Coal—altered remains of

fossil vegetation´ Accumulates in lush,

tropical wetland settings

´ Requires deposition in the absence of oxygen

 Oil shale—shale with heat altered organic matter (Kerogen)

Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Evaporites—from evaporated seawater

´ Evaporation causes minerals to precipitate.´ Thick deposits are the result of large volumes of water evaporating.´ Minerals include halite and gypsum.

 Travertine—precipitated from groundwater ´ Occurs when groundwater reaches the surface´ CO2 expelled into the air; reduced ability to hold carbonate.

´ Evaporation can also cause CaCO3 to precipitate.´ Example: thermal (hot) or cold water springs and cave settings

´ In cave settings, Travertine builds up complex growth forms speleothems

Metamorphic Rocks

 Metamorphic rock—solid-state alteration of a protolith ´ Meta = change

´ Morphe = form

 Rocks which were originally igneous or sedimentary and have been changed by heat and pressure

 Rearrange the crystal structure of the original rock

 Limestone becomes marble; sandstone becomes quartzite, shale becomes slate

Metamorphic Rocks Protoliths undergo slow solid-state changes in:

´ Mineralogy

´ Texture

 Metamorphic changes are due to variations in:´ Temperature

´ Pressure

´ Tectonic stresses (compression and shear)

´ Amount of reactive water (hydrothermal fluid)

Types of Metamorphic Rocks

 Two major subdivisions—foliated and nonfoliated

´ Foliated—have a throughgoing planar fabric´ Subjected to differential stress´ Have a significant component of platy minerals

´ Classified by composition, grain size, and foliation type

Foliation

 Foliation—Latin folium, for leaf´ Parallel planar surfaces or

layers in metamorphic rock

´ Gives the rock a streaked or striped appearance

´ Foliated rocks often break along foliation planes

 Due to´ Preferred inequant mineral

orientation, or

´ Compositional banding (dark and light layers)

Foliated Metamorphic Rock

Types of Metamorphic Rocks

 Nonfoliated—no planar fabric evident´Minerals recrystallized without

compression or shear.

´Comprised of equant minerals only

´Classified by mineral composition

NonFoliated Metamorphic Rock

The Earth’s Rocks Are Recycled Slowly

 Rock cycle´Rocks are recycled over millions of years´Erosion, melting, and metamorphism´Slowest of the earth’s cycle processes

The Earth Is a Dynamic Planet

Minerals

´ Naturally occurring´ Solid´ Formed geologically´ Crystalline structure´ Definite chemical ´ composition´ Mostly inorganic

28 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Mineral Classes

 Oxides (O2-)´ Metal cations (Fe2+, Fe3+,

Ti2+) bonded to oxygen.´ Examples

´ Magnetite (Fe3O4)

´ Hematite (Fe2O3)´ Rutile (TiO2)

 Halides (Cl- or F-)´ Examples

´ Fluorite (CaF2)

´ Halite (NaCl)

29 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Mineral classes

 Carbonates (CO32-)

´ Examples

´ Calcite (CaCO3)

´ Dolomite (Ca, Mg[CO3]2)

 Native metals

´ Pure masses of a single metal

´ Examples

´ Copper (Cu)

´ Gold (Au)

Mineral Classes

 Sulfides (S–)

´ Metal cations bonded to a sulfide anion.

´ Examples

´ Pyrite (FeS2)

´ Galena (PbS)

 Sulfates (SO42-)

´ Metal cation bonded to a sulfate anionic group.

´ Many sulfates form by evaporation of seawater.

´ Examples

´ Gypsum (CaSO42H2O)

´ Anhydrite (CaSO4)

Mineral Classes

´ Oxygen and Silicon are the two most abundant elements in the crust.

 Silicates – Silica- 4 oxygen atoms surround a single silicon atom, forming (SiO4)4- Each oxygen atom covalently shares 1 electron with the silicon atom, jointly filling its outermost shell.

Mineral Resources

 Naturally occurring mineral deposit

´ Concentrated

´ Can be extracted and used

´ Some are a single element

´ – Cu, Au, diamonds

´ Most are compounds

´ – NaCl, CaSO4

´ Metallic or nonmetallic

´ High and low-grade ores

We Depend on a Variety of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources

 Ore ´Contains profitable concentration of

a mineral´May be high-grade or low-grade

 Metallic mineral resources´Aluminum´Steel: a mixture of iron and other

elements´Copper´Gold´Molybdenum

We Depend on a Variety of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources

´ Nonmetallic mineral resources´Sand´Gravel´Limestone´Phosphate

Life Cycle of a Mineral Resource

 Mineral resources go through life cycle´ Mining

– Locate and extract´ Conversion to products

– Purify useful mineral- Manufacture product

´ Disposal or recycling- Some minerals corrode away- Metals wear through friction- Some are pollutants- Metals commonly are recycled

Supplies of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Can Be Economically Depleted

´ Reserves´Identified deposits from which we can extract the

mineral profitably at current prices´ Economic depletion

´Occurs when extraction costs more than remaining deposits are worth

´ Depletion time´Time to use a certain portion (usually 80%) of reserves

at a given rate of use

Supplies of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Can Be Economically Depleted

´ Options when a resource becomes economically depleted´Recycle or reuse existing supplies´Waste less´Use less´Find a substitute´Do without

What Are The Environmental Effects of Using Nonrenewable Mineral Resources?

´ Extracting minerals from the earth’s crust and converting them into useful products:´ Disturbs the land

´ Erodes soils

´ Produces large amounts of solid waste

´ Pollutes the air, water, and soil

  • Rock Cycle and Mineral Resources�
  • The Earth Is a Dynamic Planet
  • Slide Number 3
  • What Are Rocks?
  • Igneous Rocks
  • Slow Cooling – bigger minerals with distinct�crystal structure
  • Fast cooling – very fine grained, not crystalline
  • Intrusive vs Extrusive Rocks
  • Examples of Intrusive Igneous Rocks
  • Examples of Extrusive Igneous Rocks
  • Oceanic and Continental Crust
  • Sedimentary Rocks
  • Sedimentary Rocks
  • Clastic Sedimentary Rocks
  • Examples of Clastic Sedimentary Rocks
  • Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks
  • Organic Sedimentary Rocks
  • Chemical Sedimentary Rocks
  • Metamorphic Rocks
  • Metamorphic Rocks
  • Types of Metamorphic Rocks
  • Foliation
  • Foliated Metamorphic Rock
  • Types of Metamorphic Rocks
  • NonFoliated Metamorphic Rock
  • The Earth’s Rocks Are Recycled Slowly
  • The Earth Is a Dynamic Planet
  • Minerals
  • Mineral Classes
  • Mineral classes
  • Mineral Classes
  • Mineral Classes
  • Mineral Resources
  • We Depend on a Variety of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources
  • We Depend on a Variety of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources
  • Life Cycle of a Mineral Resource
  • Supplies of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Can Be Economically Depleted
  • Supplies of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Can Be Economically Depleted
  • What Are The Environmental Effects of Using Nonrenewable Mineral Resources?
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