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To move an idea

along, you sometimes

0:01

need to negotiate

with co-workers.

0:03

To illustrate some basic

negotiation principles,

0:06

let's look at a story

from World War II.

0:09

It's about the famous

Manhattan Project,

0:13

which led to the development

of the first atomic bomb.

0:15

The job of coordinating

the efforts of the world's

0:19

most brilliant and quirky

geniuses on this effort

0:22

fell to a man named

Robert Oppenheimer, one

0:24

of the top physicists

in the 1930s and '40s.

0:27

As a colleague later

observed, leading the project

0:31

transformed Oppenheimer.

0:34

He was a hesitant,

diffident academic,

0:37

but he became a

decisive executive.

0:40

Oppenheimer's success

depended on being

0:44

able to discover and address

various individual needs

0:46

and interests of the

scientists working with him,

0:50

and then use his negotiation

and management skills to keep

0:53

the project moving forward.

0:57

One situation he faced

involved Edward Teller,

1:00

the man who later invented

the hydrogen bomb.

1:04

Teller grew frustrated

because Oppenheimer insisted

1:07

he concentrate on fission

development, which

1:11

Teller considered to routine.

1:14

In a display of

diva-like anger, Teller

1:17

withdrew from the

fission development team

1:20

and threatened to leave the

Manhattan Project entirely

1:23

unless his demands for more

interesting work were met.

1:26

Oppenheimer's job was to sell

Teller on the idea of staying.

1:30

Oppenheimer called

Teller into his office

1:35

and let him then his frustration

about the work assignment.

1:38

Then he started

asking questions,

1:42

quickly uncovering two

things Teller wanted.

1:44

First, Teller was eager to

spend time investigating

1:47

the possibility of a hydrogen

device, a much longer range

1:51

prospect than the

atomic bomb but one that

1:55

had a great deal more

theoretical interest in terms

1:58

of physics.

2:01

Second, Teller wanted

more face time directly

2:03

with Oppenheimer,

an interaction he

2:06

missed because of the

Manhattan Project's

2:08

bureaucratic structure.

2:10

Oppenheimer then offered a deal.

2:13

First, he agreed to let Teller

dabble in his hydrogen project,

2:15

but only during limited times.

2:20

Second, he agreed

to schedule Teller

2:23

for a weekly one-hour

brainstorming session,

2:25

a concession Oppenheimer

positioned as a major sacrifice

2:29

because his hectic schedule as

director of the overall project

2:33

didn't leave him much free time.

2:36

In return, Teller

had to agree to stay

2:40

on the all important

fission development project

2:42

and follow orders.

2:45

Teller agreed.

2:47

The beauty of this arrangement

from Oppenheimer's point

2:49

of view was its low cost

to the overall effort.

2:52

True, he had to compromise a

bit on the hydrogen research

2:57

project, but he

welcomed the excuse

3:00

to schedule some

dedicated time to theorize

3:03

with his brilliant colleague.

3:05

He would get just as much

stimulation from the meetings

3:08

as Teller would.

3:11

By uncovering Teller's

interests instead of

3:13

going to war with him

over who was in charge,

3:16

Oppenheimer kept both Teller and

the Manhattan Project on task.

3:19

What can we learn

from this story?

3:25

First, negotiations follow

almost ritualized steps–

3:28

preparing, probing,

proposing, and closing.

3:33

Think of these as the four

phases of negotiation.

3:38

Second, because of the presence

of conflicting interests,

3:43

certain psychological

factors related

3:47

to attitudes about conflict

play predictable roles

3:49

in the way negotiations unfold.

3:53

Negotiation also

involves paying attention

3:57

to six key elements,

what Richard Shell calls

4:00

the six foundations of

effective negotiation.

4:04

First, styles.

4:09

Research has shown that

people have distinct styles

4:12

for handling negotiations–

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competing, looking for ways

to win the negotiation game,

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collaborating, seeking and

exploring mutual interests,

4:21

compromising, splitting

the difference

4:27

between respective

positions, accommodating,

4:29

conceding to the

other party's demands,

4:33

or avoiding, trying to dodge or

defer the conflict of interest

4:36

altogether.

4:40

Goals– goal setting

in negotiation

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is aimed squarely at

the issues in conflict.

4:44

Each side is likely to have

walk away positions or bottom

4:47

lines on the toughest issues–

4:50

a level, that is,

that would prompt

4:52

them to terminate

the negotiation

4:54

rather than say yes–

4:56

and an aspiration level.

4:58

That's what they

optimistically hope to achieve.

5:00

Then there are standards.

5:04

Authoritative

standards and norms,

5:06

such as industry guidelines

and market trends,

5:09

usually form the background

for negotiations.

5:11

Your preparation in this

respect should therefore

5:15

include a survey of the

standard space points you want

5:18

to make with your co-workers.

5:21

Relationships– the

psychology of similarity

5:24

and liking help

you build rapport

5:28

at the beginning

of a negotiation,

5:31

and the norm of

reciprocity helps

5:33

set the rhythm of both

exchanging information

5:36

and making concessions as

a negotiation proceeds.

5:39

Interests–

successful persuasion

5:44

often depends on showing

how your ideas further

5:47

your co-worker's interests.

5:51

When you find them

pushing back hard,

5:53

that's often a sign

that you have touched

5:55

on a conflicting interest.

5:57

Three questions

regarding interests

6:00

are especially important.

6:02

One, why might it already be

in my co-worker's interests

6:04

to support my idea?

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What does my co-worker

want that I can give them?

6:12

And three, why

might they say no?

6:15

These are all

important questions

6:18

in preparing to negotiate.

6:20

The more shared

interests you find,

6:23

the easier it is to resolve

the conflicting ones.

6:25

Leverage– when it comes to

negotiation, the final decision

6:30

as to who will compromise

often comes down

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to a question of

something called leverage.

6:37

That's the balance of hopes

and fears at the table.

6:40

Whoever thinks

they have the least

6:43

to lose from saying no

deal generally has the most

6:45

leverage, and whoever thinks

they have the most to lose

6:48

has the least leverage.

6:52

Let's go back to Oppenheimer.

6:57

He used negotiation

to motivate one

6:59

of the most talented physicists

of his generation, Edward

7:01

Teller.

7:05

In thinking about

these foundations,

7:06

ask yourself if they can

make your next conversation

7:08

just a little more productive.

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Like Oppenheimer, you

can use negotiation

7:15

to motivate the Tellers,

people you work with every day.

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Rely on the six

foundations to help you

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prepare for important

negotiations at work.

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After each one, reflect

on what you did well

7:27

and what you could

have done better.

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Make needed adjustments

for the next conversation.

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If you get into the habit

of reflecting in this way,

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over time, no matter

how experienced you are,

7:39

you will enhance your

ability to get things done.

7:43

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