NUR641E Advanced Pathophysiology & Pharamacology for Nurse Educators
1 Heparin exerts its therapeutic action by:
upregulating the activity of one of the body’s natural anticoagulant molecules, antithrombin III.
deactivating calcium-dependent clotting factors.
inducing prothrombin formation.
inducing the formation of fibrin.
2 Which method of drug administration can have immediate effects and requires lower doses compared to oral or parenteral administration?
3 High altitudes may produce hypoxemia by:
decreased oxygen inspiration.
All of the above
4 Causes of hyperkalemia include:
hyperparathyroidism and malnutrition.
vomiting and diarrhea.
renal failure and Addison’s disease.
hyperaldosteronism and Cushing’s disease.
5 Hypomagnesemia occurs when serum magnesium concentration is less than
6 When looking at arterial blood gas readings, you discover the following: pH 7.26, pCO2 56, HCO3 24. What condition are you dealing with?
7 A drug with a half-life of 10 hours is administered by continuous intravenous infusion. Which of the following best approximates the time for the drug to reach steady state?
8 Which NSAID is generally considered the safest for use in patients with coronary artery disease?
9 Pulmonary hypertension:
shows an enlarged pulmonary artery.
involves deep vein thrombosis.
shows right ventricular hypertrophy.
A and C are correct
10 Which stage of infection is occurring when the immune and inflammatory responses are triggered?
11 Which of the following agents is used to treat hypercalcemia of malignancy?
Activated vitamin D
12 Which statement is true regarding the pharmacokinetics of drug administration?
The immature liver or kidneys of the very young may accelerate drug metabolism and excretion.
Medications enter the body in solid form and change into solution for absorption and utilization.
It includes medication absorption, distribution to tissues, metabolism, and elimination from the body.
A therapeutic effect occurs as the medication reaches the target cell.
13 Which statement is true regarding the half-life of medications?
Doubling the dose will double the medication half-life.
Approximately 2 half-lives are required for a medication to be completely eliminated.
Patients with renal or hepatic disease usually have decreased half-lives.
The half-life of a drug helps determine how often the drug is to be administered.
14 Cell wall inhibitors include all of the following except
15 Which of the following factors do not influence bioavailability?
First-pass hepatic metabolism
Solubility of the drug
16 Which class of diuretics treats hypertension by increasing sodium and water retention?
Potassium sparing diuretics
Aldosterone inhibiting diuretics
17 What is the action of calcitonin?
Increases serum calcium.
Decreases serum calcium.
18 The nurse has a patient who has been on multidrug therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis. When planning patient education, the nurse knows the patient needs to watch for which symptom of an adverse effect of multidrug therapy?
Changes in vision
19 The spread of microorganisms from mother to the baby across the placenta is termed
20 Which antimicrobial should be avoided in children because it is deposited in tissues undergoing calcification and can stunt growth?
21 The primary role of cytochrome p-450, in the liver, is to:
stimulate steroid release as a stress response.
deactivate and detoxify medications and other substances.
produce fibrinogen, prothrombin, and factor V.
eliminate amino acids, forming urea.
22 Death from influenza usually results from
23 Which of the following statements is true regarding bioavailability?
It has little effect on the pharmacokinetics of orally-administered drugs.
It is a drug-specific property; therefore, bioavailability will be the same regardless of the dosage form used.
IV-administered drugs have a bioavailability of between 50 and 75 percent.
It is defined as the amount of administered drug that is available to reach the site of action.
24 Which of the following agents is considered a CYP3A4 inhibitor and should be used with caution in patients taking CYP3A4 substrates?
25 Which of the following drugs are not considered for use with angina?
Calcium channel blockers
26 How many months does it take for the newborn to be sufficiently protected by antibodies produced by its own B cells?
1 to 2
4 to 5
6 to 8
10 to 12
27 Low plasma albumin causes edema as a result of a reduction in which pressure?
28 What mechanism can cause hypernatremia?
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone
Hypersecretion of aldosterone
Brief bouts of vomiting or diarrhea
Excessive diuretic therapy
29 What is the direct action of atrial natriuretic hormone? (Select all that apply.)
30 Which of the following increases the potential of cardiac toxicity if taken concurrently with digoxin?
31 Which of the following corticosteroids has the shortest half-life and thus must be dosed most frequently?
32 What causes the rapid change in the resting membrane potential to initiate an action potential?
Potassium gates open, and potassium rushes into the cell, changing the membrane potential from negative to positive.
Sodium gates open, and sodium rushes into the cell, changing the membrane potential from negative to positive.
Sodium gates close, allowing potassium into the cell to change the membrane potential from positive to negative.
Potassium gates close, allowing sodium into the cell to change the membrane potential from positive to negative.
33 Which factor is responsible for the hypertrophy of the myocardium associated with hypertension?
34 The major therapeutic actions of NSAIDS include all of the following except
reduction of inflammation.
reduction of pain.
reduction of fever.
reduction of clotting factors.
35 What is an example of compensatory hyperplasia?
Hepatic cells increase cell division after part of the liver is excised.
Skeletal muscle cells atrophy as a result of paralysis.
The heart muscle enlarges as a result of hypertension.
The size of the uterus increases during pregnancy.
36 A patient with type 1 diabetes has been made NPO after midnight for surgery. Knowing that the patient needs to continue the insulin pump to prevent diabetic ketoacidosis, what would be an expectation of treatment?
Bedtime snack before midnight
Dextrose containing intravenous fluids
2am glucose check followed by apple juice if needed
Discontinue the insulin pump
37 Bacteria that produce endotoxins that stimulate the release of inflammatory mediators that produce fever are called
38 A 68-year-old male has COPD with moderate airway obstruction. Despite using salmeterol daily, as prescribed, he reports continued symptoms of shortness of breath with mild exertion. Which one of the following agents would be an appropriate addition to his current therapy?
39 Aldosterone directly increases the reabsorption of (select all that apply):
40 The most common cause of lower respiratory tract infection is
aspiration of oropharyngeal secretions.
not receiving the vaccine.
refusing to cough and take deep breaths.
remaining in bed until postop day two.
41 Which of the following is true regarding prodrugs?
They are affected considerably by renal function.
They are better than amateur drugs.
They are designed to overcome undesirable properties of an active drug.
They may be more effective in patients with liver dysfunction.
42 In the immediate postnatal period, infants lose approximately 5% of body weight due to
loss of body water
inability of the body to digest nutrients
hemolysis of red blood cells
poor sucking reflex
43 Which of the following best describes the mechanism of action of warfarin?
Directly inhibits factor Xa
Inhibits factors II, VII, IX, and X
Blocks the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin
Upregulates antithrombin III
44 When looking at arterial blood gas readings, you discover the following: pH 7.75, pCO2 24, HCO3 40. What condition are you dealing with?
45 In the absence of susceptibility data for an acute infection, the choice of an antimicrobial drug is mostly influenced by
the site of infection and the patient’s history.
the sensitivity report and the colony count.
the source of the infection and the color of exudate.
the host defense mechanism and the immune response.
46 All of the following can be a likely cause of respiratory acidosis except:
extreme fear and anxiety.
47 An increase of carbon dioxide in arterial blood causes chemoreceptors to stimulate the respiratory centers to:
decrease respiratory rate.
increase respiratory rate.
48 The leading cause of death from a curable infectious disease throughout the world is
49 Which condition poses the highest risk for a cerebrovascular accident (CVA)?
Insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus
50 Pulmonary emboli do not cause which of the following?
Obstruct blood supply to lung parenchyma
Have origins from thrombi in the legs
Occlude pulmonary vein branches
Occlude pulmonary artery branches
NUR641E Advanced Pathophysiology & Pharamacology for Nurse Educators